“If the nutritional benefit of poultry is important for many body function and supply desirable nutrient need as a source of animal protein, government, private sectors have to engross and enrich the industry.”
The increase in the price of grain such as maize, millet, and guinea corn etc. is getting alarming due to the incidence of COVID-19 pandemic which has affected the input of animal production ,resulting in the increase in the cost of output in the animal production industry in all ramification. Feed alone accounts for 70 to 80% of the total cost of broiler production (Akdeniz et al., 2006) and adequate nutrition is one of the major inputs necessary for the full expression of the genetic potentials of poultry and the prevention of stress (Adene, 1989). Poultry accounts for 19.4% of the world’s meat production compared to beef (38.3%), pork (34.9%), mutton (4.6%), Chevon (1.4%), buffalo meat (1.0%) and horse meat (0.4%) (Considine, 1982). Moreover, the poultry industry is an area where scientific innovations have served to make production one of the most technologically advanced protein production systems in the world (Dibner et al., 1998). Consequently, poultry production is the most economic route for producing high-quality animal protein within the shortest possible time for the rapidly increasing human population across the world, and especially in the sub-Saharan African countries. This is because of their short generation interval and the intensive method of production, which allows high stocking density. Broiler chickens are fast-growing animals, which are able to achieve market weight within a short period of 6 to 7 weeks nowadays. Poultry meat has many desirable nutritional benefits such as low lipid content with a relatively high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher protein content (Kinsella et al., 1990; Nettleton, 1991). An incentive to greater broilers production will, therefore, go a long way in solving the problem of low animal protein intake.
Protein Requirement by Man:
The 68g of animal protein per head per day for man recommended by FAO (1982) is a standard yet to be attained in many developing tropical countries of the world. Analogous as Nigeria who consumes below required. The problem of protein deficiency in Nigeria is evidenced by the fact that an average Nigerian consumes about 10 g per day of the minimum daily animal protein intake of 35 g recommended by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 1997). On the global level, 40% of the world’s population is malnourished especially in countries where people live mainly on cereals, grains and tubers that cannot supply some essential amino acids needed for growth and development. Animal proteins contain most of the nutrients: essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins which cannot be obtained from vegetables. This fact calls for an increase in production of animal product. Besides, the livestock industry in Nigeria represents a very important national resource since it contributes substantially to the national wealth and also supply the populace with the important animal protein required for healthy living (Kallah, 1992). Which lead or as an agent to various health problems such as edema, marasmus, kwashiorkor, organ failure, wasting and shrinkage of muscle, impaired mental health and weakness of the immune system and can prevent the result of enriching animal production industry. Ease Source of Animal Protein: For good management to give an appreciable result in terms of animal production and products especially meat, egg and milk, the role of feed and feeding must be given high consideration. The classes of animal which production can contribute rapidly to the available meat supplies on the short run are snail, rabbit, swine and poultry. However, the major factor militating against intensive animal production in Nigeria is the high cost of feed and feed ingredients, especially the conventional energy and protein feed ingredients like maize, soybean cake and groundnut cake. The ever-increasing cost of poultry feeds with the attendant increase in the cost of chicken and eggs which shows that there is need to call on the attention of different investors, companies, richer and government to engross and enrich the agricultural industry Comparison of Previous and Current Market Price: The current market for grains after today’s 6th/July/2020 was recorded in a market survey at a well-known market (kowdan market) Gombe, Gombe States. The state, which is identified as the centre of the northeast part of the country, includes farmers that have interest on grains farming and the land that support the act compare to the south-west and South-South part of the country. With a higher price increase in farm-produced, there is a very clear significant difference in price compared to the time before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. At early February of 2020 the price of grains such as maize per bag of less or equal to 60kg was #8,000 but today it cost #16,500 of the same bag and kg, sorghum per bag of less or equal to 65kg was #7,500 but today’s survey shows the difference to #14,000. Millet per bag of less or equal to 70kg was #8000 but today the market value is reading #16,000 and peal groundnut per bag of less than or equal to 65kg cost #33,000 then was #20,500 etc. which has directly affected poultry producer and the product as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The traders of these products, both large and small scales traders clamoring on the prices of raw material which affects the output of farmers and lead to low turn up of consumers. The smaller-scale farmers complained to the extend of saying if there are no changes in the prices of inputs it will lead to the shrinking of their primary income of the business. As a result, inputs are greater than outputs or equal.
Recommendations: Farmers have to also increase their profit by meeting extensions agent, research colleges. E.g., FCWM Niger State, FCFFT Niger State AND RRI JOS etc, organization, farms to have their updates on research work that has been done. Researcher are busy researching using the different non-conventional feed in other to reduce the cost of production as their contribution to the campaign for “get rid of deficiency of protein.” However the research unit has to also be given special attention by the resource person such as the government itself, companies, and investors to standardize the unit so positive outcomes should be achieved. If the nutritional benefit of poultry is important for many bodily functions and supplies desirable nutrient need as a source of animal protein, government, and private sectors have to engross and enrich the industry.
Abdulazeez Taufee (MNIM), a researcher and animal production professional, can be contacted on Abdulazeeztaufeeq@gmail.com.